Jelly and Bean

Phonic Phase 4 Resources

Phonic Phase 4 of Letters and Sounds (2007), relates to the blending of two adjacents consonants at the beginning and end of English words.

The combinations of two adjacent consonants that occur at the beginning of English words are 'bl.., cl.., fl.., gl.., pl.., sl.., br.., dr.., fr.., gr.., pr.., tr.., sk.., sm.., sn.., sp.., st.., sw.., tw..' in words like 'blob, clap, flag, glad, plop, slip, bran, drip, frog, grab, pram, tram, skip, smell, snip, stop, swim, twig'.

The combinations of two adjacent consonants that occur at the end of English words are ', ..nd, ...nk, ..nt,, ..ft, ..ld, ..lp,,' in words like 'jump, hand, pink, tent, lost, left, held, help, belt, ask'.

In Jelly and Bean books, we first use the words 'frog, and' in book 3A, 'a dog on a log'. We introduce the double consonants 'ff, ll, ss, bb, tt' in the First Words Series and Tom and Bella Series 1. Words wth adjacent consonants are used as necessary after this to ensure the texts are written in natural spoken language. 

The English language also has some combinations of three adjacent consonants such as 'spr.., str.., spl..'. These are found in the words such as 'spring, street, split'.

Some adjacent consonant spelling combinations, e.g. 'ch, sh, th' are the spellings of single sounds. These sounds are not the same as the sounds corresponding to the two separate letters.

These are known as consonant digraphs, e.g.'ch (chip), th (thank), sh (ship), ng (ring), ph (phonics), wh (where)'.

Sometimes these occur with another consonant to give 'shr.., thr.., ..nch, ..tch' as in the words 'shrub, thrush, branch, catch'.


Any of our books after book 3A , a dog on a log, in the AB Starter Pack, may contain some words with adjacent consonants at the beginning or end of the words. These are all listed in our teaching guides which may be accessed here.

Writing Activities

WA08: Blending Consonants Activities has 48 photocopiable pages of writing and comprehension exercises relating to adjacent consonants. Each activity uses words containing only the 'short' vowels 'a, e, i, o, u' as well as the consonants to blend.

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